DISTRICT COURT OF SINDH-Malir

MALIR DISTRICT AT A GLANCE

History

Malir as a District

The district derives its name from it’s headquarter town Malir. The word Malir denotes basically a region of pastoral wealth, a patch of rich and fertile plain or meadow in Rajasthani, Saraiki and Sindhi. Malir District is an administrative district of Karachi Division in Sindh, Pakistan. The district lies between 24˚45' to 25˚ 37' north latitudes and 67˚ 06' to 67˚ 34' east longitudes and is bounded on the north by Dadu district, on the south by Thatta district and Arabian sea, on the east by Dadu and Thatta districts and on the west by Karachi south, Karachi Central, Karachi East, Karachi west and Lasbala district of Balochistan province.

The total area of the district is 2268 square kilometers. Area wise it is the largest district of division. It is mostly consisting of rural area and has many farm houses and agricultural lands. Kirthar National Park and Hub Dam are also located on border of this district. Malir District was abolished in 2000 and divided into three towns namely Malir Town, Bin Qasim Town and Gadap Town. On 11 July 2011 Sindh Government restored again Malir District.

Malir as a Town

Malir Town is one of the 18 towns of Karachi City, located in the eastern part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Malir town is bordered by the Jinnah International Airport and the Malir Cantonment to the west and north, the Malir River and Shah Faisal Town to the south and Gadap Town to the east across the Thado Nallo stream. Malir has been regarded in history as the countryside of Karachi City due to its open atmosphere and lush green farms, but now these are no more.

There are several ethnic groups in Malir Town including Sindhis, Punjabis, Muhajirs, Kashmiris, Siraekis, Pakhtuns, balochis, Christians, Memons, Bohras, Ismailis, however Sindhi and Balochi form majority in the town. Total population of Malir Town was 604763 by 2008.

Malir was once famous for its fruit and vegetable farms; but, now due to severe scarcity of groundwater, these farmlands are being converted into residential areas, thus increasing urbanization and environmental degradation. The Society for Conservation and Protection of Environment (SCOPE) has been concerned about drought and desertification in Malir district and has launched a campaign against illegal sand and gravel mining in dry river beds of Malir and its tributaries. Because sand and gravel mining cause lowering of ground water, as rainwater can cannot percolate in the aquifer. SCOPE is developing rainwater reservoirs in drought affected rural areas.

If the Aquifer in Malir can be recharged enough by storing rain runoff water, it can restore greenbelts around Karachi.

Sharfuddin Shah Wilayat was a Sufi master in Malir neighbourhood of Malir Town.

Physical Features/Topography

Malir district has a variegated topography, ranging in height from below the datum level in south along the tidal swamps and mud flats of Ibrahim Hyderi and Bin Qasim coastal strips to the maximum of 525 meters above the mean sea level at Mol escarpment in Sindh Kohistan. Topographically the area can be divided into five different broad zones.

  1. The ridge and runnel upland in Sindh Kohistan:

    The ridge and runnel upland in Sindh Kohistan is the sector of rugged topography in the north of Malir district that is spread over the width of an offshoot branch of Kirthar range. These distal hill forks out of the kirthar range separating Dadu district and Khuzdar district in Baluchistan. The two ranges separate south from mountain knot of Gorag where altitude is 2126 meters. The main Kirthar range goes to South and merges into the Indus Plain near Amri, while the off shoot range pursues a south west course, gradually diminishing in height towards Gadap plain.

  2. The piedmont colluvial fans and peneplains of Gadap:

    In regimen of fluvial erosion, the colluvial fringe develops by merging of alluvial fans of individual streams depositing the erosional load of coarse sediments at the foot of hillsides. The deposits combined with material brought by sheet wash from hillsides remains mostly unconsolidated, and under the process of weathering develop into good fertile soil where water is available. In dry or semi-arid conditions this shelving deposit of unconsolidated material often creates badland topography of deeply scarred earth, unsuitable both for cultivation and habitation. Covered by sparse thorny shrubs, these however, serve as grazing grounds for goat and sheep.

  3. The plains of Moidan and Gadap:

    Down from the colluvial fans in the small drainage basins of various streams are patches of alluvial plains of varying sizes and irregular shapes, separated or partly divided by extensions of the spurs of ridges. In the ridge and runnel sector of the District in the north, the most notable plain is that of Moidan, spreading from the western flanks of Mehar Jabal to the left bank of Hub River. The plain gets narrower southward, pressed by the colluvial fans descending westward from Mari Gathi, and merges with narrower strips of shang and Khar Nala up to the valley of Mandiaro.

  4. The plains and plateaus of Malir-Lyari interfluous:

    In the upper reaches the two main effluents of Malir are Khadeji Nadi and Mol Nadi, which have their catchments basins in Sindh Kohistan in a synclinal fold between the main Kirthar range and it’s off shoot branches.

  5. The plains and hills of the coastal belt:

    The southern stretch of Malir district follows the coastal strip of Korangi and Gharo creeks, demarcating the northern side of the old Indus delta. An area to south of the east-west base line of triangular outline of Karachi division subsided and was covered by the sea, making a shallow basin. In course of time the deltaic deposits of the Indus filled up this shallow basin, whereas the up throw part to the north of the fault line made a coastal edge.

Rivers And Streams

Malir River, ephemeral in nature, flows in the district. This river is constituted from two major tributaries, Mol and Khadeji and smaller tributaries of Konkar, Thaddo and sukkhan. Khadeji is Perennial River in its upper reaches. The water of Khadeji Falls percolates into the sedimentary rocks after going some distance and it replenishes within Malir basin in the southern downstream. Some amount of water flows throughout the year inside the downward basin of Khadeji River.

Climate

The district being little away from the sea is climatically somewhat different from other parts of Karachi division. The district suffers a long hot season, which starts from March and continues till October. The summer season is not too hot due to influence of sea breeze but in May and June due to low pressure in the interior Sindh the north-east winds increase the temperature and it soars up to 43˚C or even higher. By the end of June monsoon winds from Arabian Sea moves towards lowpressure region. These winds carry water moisture in abundance, which in a shape of clouds, passes through the district reducing the temperature considerably.

Winters start from November and continue till February. During winter the temperature remains up to 15˚C. The Northern wind blows in this period, which reduces the temperature further.

There is no particular period of rain. For some years there is no rain. Maximum rainfall is in July. The average rainfall is 217 mm. On average the weather of the district is moderate

Flora

The geological and archeological evidence suggests that this region, during 500 BC, was fairly humid and carried a tropical forest. As a result of geographical changes, however, the zone is now an arid one and the dominant vegetation within the Malir district is composed of open communities of deciduous, xerophytic trees and shrubs. In the alluvial plains and calcareous hilly area of the district 25 species of plains are found. Most of the species are of minor importance and only few of them are dominant and wide spread. These are prosopis juliflora, prosopis cineraia, and acacia nelotica and euphorbia triucalli.

Fauna

In near past, deer (gazella benetti) wolf (canis lupus pellipes), jackals (canis aureus) and fox (vulpes bengalenis) were found in abundance. Now days these wild animals can be seen only in the center of wild life development.

Among birds Indian Grey partridge, chest-nut-bellied sand grouse, rock dove, Indian little button guail and Eurasian roller are found in Malir District.

History, Ethnicity/Tribes And Culture

The history of the district can be viewed in association with Karachi as a whole. Karachi has been variously called Karakola. Kolachi, Khoraji, Korangi etc. But its existence in terms of location, condition and name remains controversial. According to Dr. William Viscent in his book "The Commerce of Ancients in the Indian Ocean", it was called Karakola, when Alexander, the great stayed here. According to James Rennel when Niarx stayed here it was an island and he was impressed with it and named after his emperor "Sikandari Janat" Around 1558, Karachi was a conglomerate of about two- dozen fishing villages called Kalachi or Kalati. The settlement was projected into prominence when Seth Bhoju Mal laid the foundation of a small township on the left bank of Lyari River in 1729. This town appears to have attained little importance under either the native dynasties or the Mughal administration. Its rise into notice began with the period of Talpur Mirs, in succession to the Kalhora, who had usurped power on the breakup of the Mughal Empire. They were the first to recognize the value of the harbor for commerce and in 1792 recovered Karachi from the Khan of Kalat. The settlement expanded rapidly. It was already of significance when the British captured Karachi in 1839. The British annexed Karachi, in 1842, as part of the Province of Sindh. Then Karachi became an army headquarters for the British as well as developing into a principal port for the Indus River region.

After World War-1, manufacturing and service industries were installed. By 1924, an aerodrome had been built and Karachi became the main airport of entry into India. The city became provincial capital of Sindh in 1936.

Malir to an extent is considered to have a part history of its own. In recent past some archaeological sites were discovered. The analysis of archaeological studies made thereof from the tools, utensils, and ornaments etc. classified it of stone- age and Indus Valley civilizations. These studies, however, are not of much value as their chronological order of civilization is undetermined. Prominence of Malir came into existence in 1856 when scheme for supplying of water to Karachi was developed and Captain D. Leezay discovered the source of water in dry belt of Malir River at Dumlotee.

With the creation of Pakistan in 1947, Karachi not only became the capital and premier port of new country but also a center of business and administration. This had added the value to the burgeoning nation who suffered an increase in population as a result of mass exodus of immigrants from India. The Government decided to settle the refugees in Malir and its surrounding areas. After then the area gradually developed until November 1993 when the areas comprising now of Malir district were separated from Karachi East district and the Malir district was notified.

Ethnicity/Tribes:

Different tribes are settled in the district, majority of who are Muslim. Among Sindhis the tribes settled here are Syed, Jokhia, Khaskheli, Palri, Bareja, Bhabra, Dhars, Sirhindi Jamot and Mohannas. These tribes are landowners keep herds and do fishing.

Among the Baloch, the tribes resides in the district are Kulmati, Jadgal, Gorgej, Hoot, Vadela, Vashki, Zarzedagh, Tumpi, Lashari, Laghri, Khosa, Rindh, Brohi, Harani. Characteristically, these people are hardworking and hospitable. The previously mentioned tribes are engaged in land, service and business.

Among the Memons are Modaani, Chitrani, Bolani and Hamlani. The new settlers are from India and have settled in this district after 1947. After the downfall of Dhaka, the inhabitants from former East Pakistan migrated to this district.

Business and Industry allured a large number of persons from the rest of the country. The majority among them are the Punjabis and the Pathans. A small proportion of the Bengalis, the Burmese and the Meghwars are also settled in this district.

A small minority, which consists of Christians and Hindus, resides in Malir District.

Culture, Custom & Traditions:

The population of the district is heterogeneous follows a kaleidoscopic pattern, which has developed a mosaic culture. Apart from the ceremonies like births and death, which are followed as ritual and social duties, the shagging pattern of social economy and behavioral attitude of the persons, have diminished the values of the culture and traditions. It is common nearly to all class of people to visit shrines of saints, which are many in the district. These visits are even more pronounced at the time of trouble and misfortune, which reflects their faith upon them. Depending on which sect one belongs to determines whether or not they visit shrines or how much they revere the saints.

The youths are growing up with healthy appetite for active games. The playing of team games and regular courses in physical exercise is now part of the curriculum of the schools. Cricket, hockey and football are now becoming conspicuous features in urban and rural areas. In rural areas the indigenous games like cock-and-dog-fighting are favorite.

Food:

The staple food of the people in the district is wheat and rice. Wheat is taken in the form of unleavened cakes made savory with vegetables, meat or fish. Rice is boiled and eaten with same similar accompaniment or made into pulao or biryani. A class of people prefers rich and relish food as Shami Kabob, Seekh Kabab, Chicken Tikka, Haleem, and Nihari etc. Those who can afford them consume fruits as a part of their diet.

Tea is common among all class of people. Among sweetmeats, Karachi Halwa, Sohan Halwa and Habshi Halwa are the delicacies consumed by the people preferably on special ceremonies.

Dress And Ornaments:

The most common and generally used dress is Shalwar and a long shirt. However on festivals and special occasions this dress is of higher quality and is accompanied by waistcoat or sherwani and a Jinnah Cap. The western dress trouser and shirt is also common among educated persons, students, and working class people in the office.

The ladies-wear is also shalwar and long shirt but of bright and fancy color along with a headscarf. Ladies from eastern and southern India prefer Sari, which becomes a sophisticated dress. The women on special ceremonies also wear Gharara and Sari.

Formal ornaments, though indispensable to women, are either out of fashion or their uses are restricted to special ceremonies in this district. Thus, Jhoomer, Tika, nose-ring and necklace are generally worn in marriage ceremonies. Anklets and toe-rings have gone out of fashion for the women in Malir. Generally women wear bangles, finger-ring, a golden chain in their neck and earring of different sizes, color and design. Special attention, however, is given to match the color of bangles in harmony with the color of their dress.

Dwelling:

The new dwelling of the district is generally made of reinforced cement and concrete (RCC) The architecture of the old city is marked by decorated houses with deep wide verandas. These houses are constructed from stone blocks and are double storied. In some of the buildings wooden and iron bars are also used. The front of the houses are covered with latticed screens. In rural areas there is a marked shift in construction of the houses from mud and shrubs to (RCC).

Occupation:

Malir is an industrial and commercial city having multi-occupations. The main occupation of the people is business and trade. The other major portion of the population consists of labor class including skilled and unskilled labor. The remaining small portion of the population is having different occupation including government and private services as well as agriculture. The women also assist their men in the economic activity in different fields of business, service, education and other institutions. Women mostly serve in schools, colleges and hospitals.

Betrothal & Marriages:

Marriages in most families are still arranged by parents. The betrothal ceremony is called Mangni. It is formal engagement of a boy and girl. The betrothal ceremony is the declaration of engagement on the part of the two parties. Usually, the relatives and friends from both sides assemble at the bride's house and terms and conditions of marriage are settled. Bride's parents present the betrothal ring to the bridegroom in the presence of guests. The custom amongst some families of playing drum and Shennai at least a week before the marriage is universal. The bride becomes the center of every body's attention, when four to five days before the marriage women from the bridegroom's house go the house and make her sit in seclusion. The ceremony is called Manja or Manwah. None is allowed to visit the bride during these days except the close female relatives of the bride. Two days before the marriage the Mehndi ceremony is performed at the bridegroom's house. The women of the bridegroom's house apply Mehndi on the hands of the bride. On the marriage day the bridegroom is taken in procession on a car accompanied by relatives, guests and friends. The procession terminates at the door of the bride's house. The Moulvi or Mullah, who recites Nikah, then solemnizes the marriage. The amount of mehr, the dower money is fixed and is made known to the wedding party. Dry dates and sweets are distributed and the marriage feast is served. The bride generally leaves her father's house with the bridegroom after Nikah. The bridegroom gives a feast called Valima at his residence usually on the following day.

IMPORTANT/HISTORICAL PLACES

District & Sessions Court Malir:

The judicial District & Sessions Court Malir was created in September 1994 with the strength of five Courts. One Court of Additional District & Session Judge, and four Courts of Civil Judges/Judicial Magistrates, were created in the year 1999. One of the Court of Additional District & Session Judge and Court of Senior Civil Judge /ASJ/RC was created in the year 2005. Court of 7th Family Judge was created in the year 2007. Two new Courts of Additional District &Session Judge was created in the year 2014. In the recent past, two new Civil Judge/Judicial Magistrate Courts introduced. As we all know that I.T. industry is growing with leaps and bound, therefore realizing the ever increasing importance of I.T. The Honorable High Court of Sindh, initiated different projects to meet the prevailing demands of I.T. developments. In pursuance, The Honorable High Court of Sindh has launched Case Flow Management System (CFMS-DC), Surety & Identification System & Affidavit System. In October 2013. The then Honorable District & Sessions Judge of Malir, Mr. Muhammad Yameen inaugurated the Surety & Affidavit Section under the kind supervision of the then Honorable Chief Justice of High Court of Sindh Mr. Musheer Alam. Keeping an eye on the prevailing volatile circumstances of Karachi, in the same year, The Honorable High Court of Sindh took a drastic measure to counter any terrorist attack by launching Close Circuit Monitoring System throughout the building of District & Sessions Court Malir, in a bid to ensure the safety of Honorable Judges, Court Officials & General Public.

Malir City:

Malir, the district headquarters, is situated some twenty kilometers from the heart of Karachi City. This town is famous for its vegetable gardens and fruits orchards. A large number of sweet water wells feed these gardens. With the increase in industrial growth Malir has developed into a commercial and industrial center.

Pakistan Steel Mills:

Pakistan Steel Mills is the country's largest industrial unit having the production capacity of 1.1 million tons of steel. The foundation stone of this vital and gigantic project was laid by the then Prime Minister in December 30, 1973. It was built with a cost of Rs. 14,000 million including Rs. 7,000 million of foreign exchange.

The mill is spread over an area of 18,660 acres including 10,390 acres for the main plant, 8,070 acres for 110-MG water reservoir.

The mill provides employment to more than 21,000 persons on regular basis whereas about 3,000 daily wageworkers and retainers are engaged on piece job basis including capital repair and emergency work.

Chowkandi Tombs

Located on the National Highway, about 8 kilometers from Malir City, Chowkandi tombs are situated. It comprises of innumerable sand graves with strangely carved motifs, dating from an early Muslim period in Sindh.

Karachi International Airport:

Karachi airport is the gateway to the east. It was built in 1924 when aviation was in its infancy. In 1928, it became the port of entry into India for the Imperial Airways. At the time of Independence this was the only Airport in good shape and it met the national and international requirement at that time. During the last 26 years, it has fully equipped Flight Information Center, Area Control Center, Radar Approach Control and Air Traffic Control Tower providing for the operation of aircraft in the air, efficient conduct of flights and maintaining an orderly crew of air traffic.

Karachi Airport also has a big firefighting fleet manned by trained personnel with ambulances and fire jeeps to meet any emergency. The Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) Head Office and engineering base is situated at the airport terminal. The PIA has undertaken a major renovation project at Karachi Airport to meet its daily expanding requirements of the supersonic jet era. In order to facilitate the passengers further the Civil Aviation Authority has constructed a new building-The Jinnah Terminal. Due to its sheer size and its function as the gateway into Pakistan, it merits a unique and lasting position both as project in totality and as an architectural landmark. The Jinnah Terminal is a multi-level facility with two satellites; each has eight aircraft parking around it and is connected to the terminal building by a link corridor. There are 46 airline checkin counters for international passengers and 30 counters for domestic use. The building can handle over 8 million passengers annually, including all domestic and international traffic.

POPULATION SIZE, GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION

Population Size And Growth:

The population of Malir district is 981.41 thousands in 1998 as compared to 429.57 thousands in 1981 recording an increase of 128.46 percent over the last 17 years i.e. during 1981-98. The average annual growth rate of population during 1981-98 is 4.98 percent. If the population continues to grow at its present rate i.e. 4.98 percent per annum, it will double in about every 14 years.

The area of district is 2268 square kilometers yielding a population density of 432.7 in 1998

Household Size:

Average household size of the district is 6.2 in 1998. If we compare rural/urban areas the household size is 5.6 in rural and 6.8 in urban areas.

Rural/Urban Distribution:

The rural population of the district is 321.00 thousands constituting 32.70 percent of the total population in the district. The average annual growth rate of rural population during 1981-1998 is 3.80 percent.

The urban population of the district is 660.00 thousands which constitutes 67.30 percent of its total population. There are four urban locations in the district of which District Municipal Corporation, Malir has a population of 447.00 thousands followed by Gujro Town Committee with 134.54 thousands.

Religion:

The population of the district is predominantly Muslim who constitutes 96.57 percent of the total population and 96.51 percent in urban area. Among the minorities percentage of Christians is 2.08, all remaining minorities, which are 1.35 percent. Most of the Christians are settled in urban areas.

Religion Population by Religion (%age)
Muslim 96.57
Christian 2.08
Hindu (Jati) 1.10
Qadyani (Ahmadi) 0.18
Scheduled Caste 0.03
Others 0.04

Mother Tongue:

25.08 percent of the total population in the district, followed by Pushto and Punjabi sharing 20.67 and 17.46 percent speaks Sindhi as mother tongue respectively. Urdu, Balochi and Saraiki are spoken by only 15.87, 8.51 and 2.36 percent of the population.

LITERACY AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Literacy:

In the 1998 census Literacy was defined as the “ability of a person to read a news paper or write a simple letter in any language”. The Literacy is also measured in terms of literacy ratio and computed as percentage of literate persons among the population aged 10 years and above.

The literacy ratio of the district is 53.56 percent. The male literacy ratio is higher at 61.44 percent as compared to 42.87 percent for females. There are sharp differences in the literacy ratios by sex and areas. The ratio in urban areas is 55.65 as compared to 49.16 percent in rural areas. In rural areas male literacy is 58.57 percent as compared to female literacy ratio, which is at 38.05 percent. In urban areas it is 62.69 for males in comparison to females at 45.43.

Educational Attainment:

The percentage of educated persons is 52.92 of the population aged 10 years and above, including those below primary. The remaining 47.08 percent either have attained no educational level or never attended any educational institution.

A large variation exists in the ratios of educated persons in rural and urban areas as well as for males and females. The percentage of males is 60.87 and for females 42.13. It is 48.26 for rural against 55.12 for urban areas.

Hdf Related Information:

Karachi Kachi Abadi is a unique region, which is like a village surrounded by a metropolitan city. The Region was established in June 2001. The Region was started with one HDF unit (1,000 households). The project area covers three villages e.g. Adam Hungoro Goth, Muslimabad, and Balil Colony. All these villages are situated in Malir District of Karachi and seemed to be the most neglected out of all the Katchi Abadis of Karachi. Most of the inhabitants have migrated here from Ran of Katch and belong to Katchi tribe. There are also Punjabis, Pathans and Balochis living in the Region.

Most of the women of the area work in the big houses of the nearby posh area. They leave their homes for work in the morning and come back in the evening.

In the program area there is just one middle School, in which two shifts are operated. Females are deprived from the schooling facility altogether. There are some English Medium Schools as well, but the people of the area cannot afford the high expenses of such schools.

In the Katchi Abadi, the houses are very small. Average population/household is eight. The targeted area has poor sewerage system and streets are also un-paved. The community of the area has been exploited and terrified in the past by some individuals/organizations.

When HDF started baseline survey in Kachi Abadi, the people were reluctant and scared to provide the required information due to their bad experience in the past. The courteous and polite behavior and strong determination of HDF staff led to a situation where the community built its trust and confidence, and not only provided relevant information but also agreed to work with HDF in the implementation of the HDF interventions.

HDF hopes that from the KKA model, a learning process has been started that will, in the long run, enable the staff to efficiently operate its programs in urban areas.

Neighborhoods:

Soomar Kandhani Kashkeli goth Hashim Kashkeli Goth
Soomar Ismail Kashkeli Goth Gharibabad
Ghausia Colony Ghazi Brohi Goth
Gulistan-e-Rafi Gulshan-e-Harooni
Gulshan-e-Qadri Gulshan-e-Yousuf
Hussainabad Jaffer-e-Tayyar
Jam Goth Jinnah Square
Kala Board Kousar Town
Khokrapar Khoso Goth
Liaquat Market Lyari Basti
Memon Goth Millat Town
Model Colony Moin-a-bad
Mulaisa Goth Nafeesabad
Nashtar Square Pak Kausar Town
Raza Plaza Salar Goth
Saudabad Shaban Town
Taiser Town Urdu Nagar
Aso Goth Sumar Kandani Village

Police Station Falls In Our Jurisdiction:

Airport Bin Qasim
Gadap City Ibrahim Hyderi
Malir Cantt Malir City
Memon Goth Quaidabad
Sachal Shah Latif Town
Steel Town Sohrab Goth
Sukkhan--
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